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Writtern by Dr. Akhil B.A.M.S


According to the fundamental principle of ayurveda, agni has an important role to play in the physiological functioning of body

   The rajasika component of prakruti is also described as tejas meaning, related to agni

   Agni in nyaya-vaisheshika-it is one of the navadravyas and is represented by tejas paramanu.


  • Property ascribed for  tejas is heat.
  • It is one of the fundamental substance
  • The solar heat is the source of all the store of heat required for chemical change in the world.
  • The subtle decomposition and recomposition (
     samyoga and vibhaga) is due to tejas.
  • Tejas possess the property of heat and could be cognised by tactile perception. It may occure in two foms

                                  A) nitya( eternal)

                                  B) anitya( transient)     

Anitya occurs in three forms

                         1) teja- shareera

                         2) indreeya- teja

                         3) vishaya- teja


The concept of biological agni has been described in ayurveda in two references.

           1)  agni

          2)   pitta

 Functions  attributed them are

  • Dahana
  • Pachana

 Pitta                                           agni

Five types                             thirteen types

            Pachaka                                  jadaragniè1

           Ranjaka                                   dhatvagniè7

           Sadhaka                                   bhootagniè 5



       Pitta is considered  as antharagnianatomical site and physiologicalfunctions of five pittas are quite different from thirteen agnis excepting the concet of jadaragni and pachaka pitta where there is overlaping according to ayurvedaevery atom of the body is represented by vata ,pitta and kapha. So every cell of thebody contains pitta or agni the reation between agni and pitta is also established   as cause and effect that is pitta as the effect and agni is the cause.

Renjaka pitta

It imparts the characteristic colour to the lymph-chyle as it is transformed into blood by coursing through the liver and spleen , where it is located.

Sadaka pitta

It is situated in the heart and indirectly assist in the performance of cognitive functions in man by keeping up th cardiac contractions.


It indicates the metabolic process in the substance of the retina( drishti) which gives rise to visual sensation.

Brachaka pitta

It produces perspiration or helps exudations from the skin by evaporation.

Pachaka pitta

It is situaed in the region between the stomach and the intestine and being a liquid fire or fluid heat primarily concerned in digesting the four kinds of food.


It is the imortant source of heat by which food is digested.it consumes shadrasas and assimilates them.by its nature it is very subtle and its potency cant be realized.

1)primarily for the digestion of all types of food

2)sara-kitta vibhajana from the ahara rasa.

3)it exercises secretory control on its own components

4)it exercises control upon the other agnis situated at diff sites in the body

5)acts as pachakagni

6)there is extention of pachakagni at the level of dhatus known as pachakagneya amsha or kayagneya amsha which regulates metabolism at tissue level.

Prime among all agni is jadragni.

The function of other agnis

                1) dhatvagni 2) bhoothagni is dependent upon the stength of jadaragni.

Agni vyapara( metabolic processes)

          It have been grouped in three

            1) sanghata bheda

            2)  parinama

           3) paravrutti  

Sanghata bheda- considered as disintegration phase . That is

     At the level of jadaragni

Parinama- braking of he matter and production of heat and energy. That is at the level of dhatvagni and bhoothagni.

Paravruti- one type ofmatter is converted  into another at the level of dhatvagni and bhooyhagni.

 Dhatvagni as endocrinal secretions(hormones)

Functional status of jadaragni

          It is of four types


                            2) theagni

                            3) vishamagni

                            4) samagni

        Dosha prakarana( atiological fators)

           Disturbances of doshas---->disorders of jadaragni---->formatn of ama---->production of disease.



7-rasagni,raktagni,mamsagni,medogni,asthyagni,majjagni and shukragni.maintains the quality and quantity of their respective dhatus by making the nutrients available to them.these helps in conversion of the end products of bhutagnipaka into the substances specific to dhatus.physiological status of dhatus depends upon-the availability of nutrition,normal functioning of the dhatvagni,presence of normal channels.

2 groups of agni at dhatu level

1)related to conversion of food stuffs into specific tissue material.the agni performing the functions of anabolism and regeneration .

  2)agni situated at the dhatu level(pachakamsha)-similar in fn to jadaragni or pachakagni.

Importance of agni

Agni digests food.if it is deprived of food,it starts burning doshas followed by dhatus and finally,takes away the life.so agni should be supplied with adequate quantity of food  at appropriate time.agni is the source of strength and semen the source of life.so by all means one should protect agni and retas.the agni tht digest food is considered as the master of all agnis,since the variations depend on jadaragni.hence one should conserve agni carefully by providing wholesome food and drinks as it determines the span of life and strengthagni is the chief source for strength,health,lifespan and breath itself.sp agni should be kept in flared up state by wholesome fuel,as it affects above said dependents.


Homos-equal,istemi-to stand,literally means to stand equally.it is the property of either a closed system or an open system,especialy a living environment so as to maintain a stable,constant condition.multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments and regulation mechanisms make homeostasis possible.an advantage of homeostasis regulation is that it allows an organism to function effectively in a broad range of environmental conditions.most homeostatic regulation is controlled by the release of hormones into the blood stream,other regulatory process rely on simple diffusion to maintain a balance.control mechanismàreceptor senses stimulus and sends information to control center,the control center determines an appropriate response to the stimulusàresult of tht response feeds to the effector,either enhancing it with +ve feedback or depressing it with –ve feed back.